8/10 what are the procedures in lying an anchor? 14/10 how to tie to a mooring buoy and mooring techniques
Securing a yacht without coming alongside a quay or pontoon can be done by mooring and anchoring. Places to moor are laid in harbours, rivers,and bays providing convenient securing points for visiting or resident yachts.
A yacht mooring is one or more heavy anchors or seabed weights attached to a heavy chain riser. This riser is attached to a floating buoy. Light craft boat moorings have a small buoy that is picked up and brought on board through a bow fairlead and secured to a cleat.
Other yacht moorings consist of a larger buoy fitted with a ring on top to where the vessel is tied with a mooring line. Another is a separate small pick-up buoy which is brought aboard to secure the vessel. Laid in rows called [ trots ], these are found along the edges of river channels in line with the tidal flow.
When visiting a harbour with visitors' mooring buoys, select a suitable boat mooring which is strong enough and in water deep enough so that the yacht still floats at low tide. Ensure there is enough room for the yacht to swing around the buoy with the wind and tide without interfering with other craft. If planning an overnight stop, consider how sheltered it is from wind and swell.
Assess how easy is it to approach and leave under power or sail, as well as its proximity to other vessels and the shore. Be sure not to pick up a permanent mooring, as the owner may return and claim the berth.
Before [ picking up ] fore-and-aft buoys, check their suitability for the size of vessel. Reaching the buoys from the deck of a yacht has its difficulties. To be at the level to effectively pick up a buoy, the crew may have to lie on the deck with a boat hook. Some fore-and-aft buoys have smaller [ pick-up buoys ] attached, making it easier for them to be pick up.
When leaving, tie the pick-up buoys together which makes recovery easier. Check the quality of the rope attaching them to the main buoys and if in doubt, rig your own lines to the buoys.
Yachts should be equipped with two boat anchors which are rated to hold it securely in gale force conditions. The main or 'bower' anchor is the heavier of the two and matched to at least 50 metres of chain. The second or 'kedge' anchor should have 6metres of heavy chain and at least 100 metres of plaited or braided nylon anchor warp.
When anchoring a yacht for short stops, the kedge is used when the weather is good, or fork edging-off the boat after running aground. The Bruce, CQR, Danforth,and Fortress anchors are all suitable anchors as they bury themselves well into seabeds of shingle, sand, or mud.
The [ Bruce ] is popular as a bower anchor, and the [Fortress] anchor is a good kedge option. A [ Fisherman's ] anchor is superior when anchoring on a rocky seabed. Offshore sailing requires the use the heaviest anchor that can be fitted on the yacht as it gives surety in exposed anchorages.
Boat anchor cable should be chain, although heavier than rope it is stronger. A nylon rope is suitable for the kedge as sometimes the anchor is used from the tender. The rope being lighter than chain makes positioning the anchor much easier.
The standard practice is to install a short length of chain between the anchor and the rope to protect from chafing from the seabed and combined with its [ catenary ],acts as a spring in gale-force conditions. The end of the chain or the bitter end is secured to a strong eye bolt with a rope lashing which can be cut in an emergency.
The holding power of an anchor is dependent on the amount of cable that is payed out; and in turn, will depend on the amount of cable carried and the depth of water. The minimum scope for chain is3:1 and for rope 5:1 but where sufficient cable is available, increase these ratios to 5:1 and 8:1 respectively. In an exposed anchorage in rough conditions, paying out ten or more times the depth of water prevents the anchor dragging. Allow for the rise of tide if boat anchoring at low water.
Choosing an anchorage requires a check of tidal curves to determine the minimum depth at low tide. Allowances for vessels already moored should be made, particularly if some are on rope and others on chain as they have different [ swinging circles ].
A sheltered anchorage from the wind at the time of boat anchoring may become untenable if there is a wind change and the anchorage becomes exposed.This also may happen when there is a change of direction of the tidal stream causing a change in the sea state.
Check the weather forecast before anchoring, taking into account any predicted changes in wind direction or strength. Consult the tidal atlas and tide tables to assess if the changes will affect the anchorage. If anchoring in shallow water, check the water level at low tide and whether there is sufficient water to keep afloat and to allow the yacht to leave safely at any time.
The approach and leaving techniques to moor and anchor are similar. The differences are the equipment and crew procedure. When arriving, decide on a method and route of approach with the aim of stopping the yacht at a spot to drop anchor or pick up the mooring.
More precision is required when picking up a buoy than anchoring. When anchoring, stop the yacht in the chosen spot and as the boat anchor is dropped, move the vessel backwards to prevent the chain from fouling the anchor. A system of hand signals to allow communication between the foredeck and the cockpit is preferable as noise interferes with the spoken word.
Boat anchors and anchor chains on most cruising yachts of up to 10 metres can be handled safely without winches. On yachts greater than 10 metres, the use of manual or electric anchor winches to handle anchors and chains is essential.
When the wind is forward of the beam, approach on a close reach under mainsail alone.
When the wind is aft of the beam, sail upwind of the mooring or anchor spot, lower the mainsail.
How to leave is determined by the wind direction. Decide on the route and check for obstructions, then brief the crew.
Approach a boat mooring or anchorage under power into the strongest element either the wind or the tide. This gives maximum control over where the yacht stops. If not sure what is the stronger element, look at similar boat types that are moored or anchored. Plan the course to clear other vessels or obstructions along with an escape route in case of unforeseen circumstances. Brief the crew and have them prepare a warp or anchor and cable.
It is preferable to moor the vessel than to come alongside. When approaching a buoy, one or two crew members should have a line and boat hook ready pick up the mooring buoy. To check the approach and inspect the pick-up arrangement, make a dummy run. With larger cruisers, the bow can be high out of the water causing difficulty in picking up the buoy or to thread a line. If this is the case, come alongside the buoy where the freeboard is usually less, just forwards of the shrouds.
When leaving, the foredeck crew prepares to disengage from the buoy immediately on command. If a pick-up buoy is aboard, its line is uncleated and held with a turn around the cleat. When the buoy is dropped, the skipper is informed when it is clear of the vessel. If a mooring rope has been tied to the buoy or chain, it is led again as a slip line and can then be easily released and recovered.
Some tidal harbours or rivers have pile moorings which provide fore and aft attachment points and these are found along the edges of a channel, parallel to the main tide flow. [ Piles ] are large wooden or metal stakes driven into the seabed equipped with fittings. Boats often raft up between pile moorings but there is usually a limit to the number of vessels allowed on each pair of piles. When rafted between a pile mooring, all the vessels must secure to the piles as well as to the neighbouring vessels.
Leaving a pile mooring is a simple procedure the only consideration is the exit in relation to any nearby hazards. When lying alone between a pair of piles, leave into the tide, either bow or stern first. If inside a raft, recover the pile lines using the tender, then leave as for a raft. If on the outside, recover your pile lines and leave as for an alongside berth.
Leave into the Tide
Picking up a pile mooring is simple if selecting empty piles then only two lines are needed and the operation can be completed from on deck. If choosing to come alongside another vessel, approach as for an alongside berth.Six warps or lines plus fenders will be needed, and the tender will be used to attach the pile lines. Plan to approach into the strongest element and brief the crew in advance with a boat hook handy and the lines.
A Strong Wind on Beam
To leave under sail is a fairly easy manoeuvre if berthed alone between piles. If the yacht is the outside vessel in a raft on piles, it may be possible to leave under sail if on the leeward side, after using the tender to recover the pile lines.
Pile moorings are found in tidal areas so it is best to leave bow into the tide giving the most control. If lying stern to the tide, use warps or lines to turn the vessel before trying to leave. Now with the bow pointing into the tide, the method of leaving is determined by wind direction.
Under sail, use the mainsail alone, or with the headsail, with the wind forward of the beam, and the headsail alone if the wind is on or aft of the beam. Rig the bow and stern lines as slips before hoisting sails,and manipulate them to turn the yacht to help it sail off.
Wind Forward of the Beam
When approaching a pile mooring under sail make the approach into the strongest element.